Secure your Data from WiFi Hacking Attacks in 10 steps
The days of worrying about your data allowance are largely a thing of the past, courtesy of faster broadband speeds and generous tariffs. But that doesn’t mean you should forget about who’s using your WiFi. Whether you’re a home or small-business user, identifying who and what is on your network is as important as ever.
10 Steps to Secure Your Data from WiFi Hacking Attacks
An unauthorised user could be streaming pirated movies, hogging your bandwidth and, potentially, landing you in a spot of legal bother. They could be indulging in more nefarious activity, maybe even trying to hack into your systems. This shouldn’t come as any great surprise when research commissioned by Broadband Genie shows 54% of British broadband users are concerned about someone hacking their router, yet only 19% had accessed the Wi-Fi router configuration controls, and a measly 17% had changed the admin password from the default.
1. Change the admin password
If you want to know what your wireless network is up to, you’ll need to roll up your sleeves and head straight for the admin gateway of your router: BT will usually default to 192.168.1.254; Sky users should try 192.168.0.1; and all TalkTalk routers have an internal IP of 192.168.1.1. If you’ve swapped out the supplied router for one of your own preference, Google is your friend.
Default login settings should only be used to get up and running out of the box, after which you should change the password to something long and complex, and change the username if your router allows it. Long and random is great passkey advice, which is almost always ignored on the basis that people want to join the Wi-Fi network without any hassle. Well, duh! Ask yourself this: how often does any user actually have to enter the Wi-Fi password manually? Certainly within the home, and for many small-business scenarios, the answer is usually hardly ever after the initial setup.
A key that’s over 20 characters long, with a randomly generated mix of upper and lower-case alpha-numericals, with special characters, is your best bet. LastPass’ tool is excellent for producing randomly generated and secure passwords.
2. Don’t broadcast your router details
While you’re in your router settings, you should change your service set identifier (SSID). This is the name of your network that the outside world sees; it commonly defaults to the router manufacturer’s name. In light of how easy it is to find admin logins online, best not make the hackers life any easier than it already is. A determined hacker isn’t going to be prevented from detecting and accessing your network simply because there’s no SSID being broadcast, but using a random name rather than the factory default makes sense. Not least as it suggests the user is more security savvy than someone who is still broadcasting the router manufacturer.
3. Disable Wi-Fi-protected setup (wps)
Wi-Fi-Protected Setup (WPS) uses the press of a button, or entry of a PIN number, to establish an encrypted connection between a device that supports it and your network. Advising users to disable WPS may appear counter-intuitive, but it’s broken. It makes use of what appears to be an eight-digit PIN code but looks can be deceiving. The last number is always a check digit, so already the PIN is reduced to seven numbers, which makes brute-forcing much easier. As does the fact that most routers don’t include a cooling-off timeout between WPS guesses. Here comes the stinger, though: as far as validation is concerned, the first four digits are seen as a single sequence, as are the final three. That means the possible number of combos just shrank from over ten million to around 11,000. No wonder pen-testing tools such as Reaver can brute-force WPS in a matter of seconds.
4. Update your firmware
The same Broadband Genie research mentioned earlier also shows only 14% of British broadband users had updated their router firmware and, to be honest, we’re surprised it’s that high. If you’re one of the 86%, though, do it today. Updating your router firmware boosts your security at no cost and in very little time, yet it’s a step that most home and small-business users fail to take.
Why? Because our mindset is wrong. In the home, and in many small businesses, the concept of “patch management” doesn’t exist but it should. We’re all used to watching Windows disappear into the land of suspended resource time as it installs an update, after all. The majority of routers will have an automatic update option, so hunt it down and enable it. Be advised that sometimes a firmware upgrade might default the router back to original settings do a quick check afterwards to be on the safe side.
5. Try a different dns server
Just as you can install an alternative to the firmware that runs your router, you can choose a different Domain Name System (DNS) server instead of the ISP default. There may come a time when the DNS servers used by your ISP come under attack, by a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack, for example, or someone changing the DNS to effect a cloned banking fraud. The bigger ISPs are a target for this, since the consequences of hacking their DNS servers would be enormous.
We’ve seen the DNS servers of the larger providers suffer downtime, so having a backup and knowing how to flick the switch is useful. The most common choice will be Google Public DNS server (on 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124 for the IPv4 service) or OpenDNS (on 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52). There’s a setup guide at pcpro.link/271dns, which details changing your DNS for home routers, laptops, smartphones and servers.
Essentially, though, open your router admin panel and look for the Domain Name Server addresses configuration page; input a primary and secondary DNS IP. Some routers will have a third server option, and for OpenDNS this would be 184.108.40.206. And that’s it, other than to test it’s working by hitting the Test button on the OpenDNS guide pages.
Certain providers prevent you from adjusting the DNS server addresses in their own-brand routers, but you can still set individual computers to seek alternate servers.
6. Install alternative firmware
The more adventurous user may take the “update your firmware” message a step further and install totally new firmware from an alternative source. If you think of your router as being a mini-computer, it’s akin to changing the OS on a laptop from the supplied Windows install to a Linux distro.
Why would you do this? To gain functionality missing from the original firmware, especially relating to security. And why wouldn’t you? Your warranty will be invalidated, so it’s best left to older routers. If you go ahead, you’ll probably find yourself choosing between DD-WRT and Tomato, which is easier to use but at the cost of being less feature-rich.
7. Sniff out rogue devices
Now we’ve covered most of the major security precautions you could take, how might you discover who’s actually using your Wi-Fi? You can do this from your router gateway, and it varies from router to router as to where the option will be.
With BT’s Smart Hub, you should click on the My Devices tab, for example, whereas most Netgear routers will hide the attached devices list in a Maintenance menu. There are lots of tools out there to help you do the same, and they don’t have to be as complex as something such as Nmap.
One of our favourites is Fing for Android or iOS. This app scans any IP range and shows what’s connected and in plain English, where possible. So whereas the BT router will often only list a device’s IP address, Fing usually spells out the device’s manufacturer, making it easier to identify the dozens of devices we have connected these days.
If the numbers don’t add up, it’s a good idea to determine why. If you only have a laptop, a phone, an Android-powered TV set and a printer connected to your hub, why are there nine devices using your Wi-Fi? And how do you know how many people are using it and what those devices are?
See something you don’t recognise and Fing will, at the touch of a button, reveal the information you need to block it from your router admin gateway. That you can do all of this from your smartphone, anywhere in the home or office, makes keeping tabs on who’s using your Wi-Fi hassle-free.
8. Employ mac filtering
The information that Fing reveals when you want to block something from using your Wi-Fi is our old friend the Media Access Code (MAC), which every device connecting to a network is allocated. It’s a 48-bit digital identifier used by the device to tag network packets, to be precise.
By default, your router will connect to anything that wants access, provided it has the correct password. If you want to prevent a device from connecting, even if the user has the correct password, that’s where MAC filtering comes in.Once you have a MAC address code, you can use an online specialist site such as What’s My IP or MAC Vendor Lookup (macvendorlookup.com) to identify any piece of connected kit that you don’t recognise. Fing does the MAC lookup for you in the background and then automatically displays the device maker on-screen as part of its auditing process.
When you’ve identified the culprit, head to the “access control” section of your router controls, which is MAC filtering by another name. Here you can either block all new devices, so before anything can join the network you’d have to whitelist the device’s MAC address, or block individual devices by blacklisting their MAC.
It isn’t foolproof: most devices allow their MAC to be changed in software, so a determined hacker could clone a device that you whitelist and gain access. Ultimately, if you don’t want someone to use your Wi-Fi, don’t give them the password. If they’re already using it, then change the password to something more complex.
9. Use a virtual private network
Whether you’re using the original router firmware or have installed an alternative, there’s a strong chance that virtual private networks (VPNs) will be supported. When people think of a VPN, they think of a third-party application that re-routes all their internet traffic through a proxy server at a cost. What’s less commonly considered is operating your own VPN through your router.
This will give you the advantage of being able to securely access your home network, across an encrypted internet tunnel, when you’re away. It gives you the same end-to-end encryption as a subscription service, so you can securely use that coffee shop or hotel Wi-Fi, but with no fees or bandwidth implications. You’ll almost certainly need a Dynamic DNS (DDNS) service to resolve a domain name to your router as a home user, to get around the fact that most ISPs don’t offer a static IP address for your router; the free-to-use No-IP is as good as any for this.
10. Set up a guest network
The trouble with passing out your Wi-Fi passkey to family and friends who visit is that, every time you do, it dilutes your security. Not only do they know your password, but they might also give it to someone else. You could change to a new password after every occasion, which is the most secure, if not the most convenient, solution. More conveniently, and pretty secure as well, is going the whole nine yards and setting up a guest network for visitors. If the concept of a properly secured guest network isn’t supported by your router, all is not lost: simply buy a better router or change the firmware as mentioned earlier.
The popular replacement router firmware Tomato supports a guest mode, and means you can provide users with a key that puts them online on a virtual network without exposing your own connected devices.